Sunday, November 17, 2013

Why Does Dark Energy Make the Universe Accelerate?

Sean Carroll has a post "Why Does Dark Energy Make the Universe Accelerate? ( )”. The following four points are his answer.
a.     the density of dark energy is constant and *persistent*,
b.     which means the curvature of spacetime is constant,
c.      which means that the universe expands at a fixed rate.
d.     “Constant expansion rate” implies accelerating away from us, exponentially.

These are all good and correct points. But there are two problems.
i.                    “Why Does Dark Energy Make the Universe Accelerate?” is not a good question, as it already has a partial answer --- dark energy makes the universe accelerating. The good question should be “What does make the universe expanding accelerate?”
ii.                  What is the source or mechanism to keep dark energy to be constant?  While *persistent* is a fact but is not a good answer.

For the Big-bang cosmology, the universe is *finite*, that is, it has a boundary (surface). Then,
iii.                Where is that boundary?
iv.               What is outside of that boundary?
v.                 How to move that boundary to its outside?

When we answer the question iii, iv and v, we get the answers for the i. and ii automatically.  Let me give some short answers here.

For Q iii --- the answer is *Here*.
For Q iv --- the answer is *Next*.
For Q v --- the answer is *with ħ (Planck constant)*.

With these three answers, we derive the force equation: moving from {[Here (now), Now] to [Here (next), Next]} = {Delta S, Delta T} = (Delta S  x  Delta T);

                          F =  ħ/(delta S x delta T)

This is the force driving the universe accelerating outward. The details of this equation is available at 

For calculating the Planck data (dark energy = 69.2; dark matter = 25.8; and visible matter = 4.82), See  

Note (added on August 28, 2016):

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this:#PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).

 Copyright © November 2013 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

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