Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Higgs boson, a bad idea, part four



{Note (added on April 2, 2015, months before the LHC run II):

There should be a vacuum boson {as vacuum [d (blue), -d (-yellow)] quark pair} transformed into vacuum {u (yellow), -u (-blue)}, see http://www.prequark.org/pq11.htm .


This vacuum boson's mass should be:

{Vacuum energy (about 246 Gev) divided by 2} + {a push over energy (vacuum fluctuation, about 2.46 Gev)}
= 123 + 2.46 = 125.46 Gev.

The above calculation has only one parameter: the vacuum energy. As a vacuum boson, its key feature is having a zero (0) spin.


Three years after the discovery of this new 125.4 Gev boson, the Higgs mechanism is not verified (see article form Nigel Lockyer, Director of Fermi Lab. at http://www.quantumdiaries.org/2014/04/24/massive-thoughts/ ). That is, the Higgs mechanism is wrong, totally nonsense, and of course there is no Higgs boson; it is a Vacuum Boson.
End note.}





With the Standard Model (quark universe) as the destination, I have showed a road map of how to reach it from a singularity, the nothingness. I am summarizing this road map below.

According to the principles of Linguistics Manifesto, all large complex systems arise from a series of “self-reflection” processes. There are, at least, three self-reflections on the zero(s)/infinities symmetry breaking for giving rise to the physical universe.

A. Self-reflection one (the singularity self-reflection)--- the zero(s)/infinities symmetry breaking via the concretizing pathway, and it gives rise to two concrete objects, trisected angle and a circle. The key numbers for these two objects are (3, pi, 4, 64).

B. Self-reflection two (the loop-line self-reflection) --- the zero(s)/infinities symmetry via the “loop-line” symmetry breaking pathway, and it gives rise to,
     i. three seats (x, y, z) as a line has three parts, the two ends and the middle.

     ii. (4, 4, 4) = 64 dimensions, as every seat has 4 dimensions (+1, -1, +i, -i).

     iii. The inner product (IP, another self-reflection) gives rise to two groups with two sub groups each.
                a. Positive (32 dimensions)
                           1. When IP = +1 (24 dimensions), these could be the matter dimensions.
                           2. When IP = +3 (8 dimensions), these should be the vacuum dimensions. 

                b. Negative (32 dimensions)
                           1. When IP = -1 (24 dimensions), these could be the anti-matter dimensions.
                           2. When IP = -3 (8 dimensions), these should be the vacuum dimensions.

C. Self-reflection three (the stock sharing self-reflection) --- the zero(s)/infinities symmetry breaking via the results of the two self-reflections above. The wholeness (the unit circle) is divided by those 64 dimensions according to the actual manifestation. Thus, there should be a dividing “unit”, A(0).

       a. A(0), the unit angle,  equals to  {(360/2pi) *[(pi/64 + (pi/64)^ 2 + (pi/64)^3  + ... ]/2]} = 1.4788413 degrees. 

Note: the A(0) is based only on the two self-reflections above, with only the numbers (pi and 64) in its calculation.

       b. A(1), the first order division (stock sharing), equals to
                           [360 - 24 * A(0)]/24 = 13.521159 degrees.
Again, A(1) is wholly based on the two self-reflections above, with only the numbers [360 (=2pi), 24, A(0)].

       c. A(2), the second order division (pie sharing), equals to
                                      (2 * [360 - A(1) - A(0)]/24) = 28.75 degree.
Again, A(2) is wholly based on the previous data, with only the numbers [360 (=2pi), 24, A(0), A(1)].

Coincidentally, the value of A(1) is very close to the Cabibbo angle (θc), and the value of A(2) is very close to the Weinberg angle (θW ). For both the Weinberg angle (θW ) and Cabibbo angle (θc), they are the results of “bookkeeping” by measuring the ratios of different quarks in a mixing bowl (the result of collisions of high energy particles). They are not derived theoretically.

On the contrary, the A(1) and A(2) are derived theoretically from the self-reflections of the zero(s)/infinities symmetry breaking. They are the precise rules for the “stock sharing” among those dimensions (different quarks or leptons) which arise from the symmetry breaking.

Then, there is a dimensionless constant (alpha, the electron fine structure constant), and its measured value is as below.
                                                            Beta = 1/alpha = 137.0359 …
Thus far, this alpha is viewed as the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man.

Yet, in the Prequark Chromodynamics ( http://www.prequark.org/  ), the Alpha is calculated theoretically with the following equation.

Beta = 1/alpha = 64 ( 1 + first order sharing + sum of the higher order sharing)
        = 64 (1 + 1/Cos A(2) + .00065737 + …) = 137.0408704 …

The sum of the higher order sharing = 2(1/48)[(1/64) + (1/2)(1/64)^2 + ...+(1/n)(1/64)^n +...] = .00065737 + …  

Note: there is a 0.0036% difference between this theoretical number from the measured value. The A(2) =28.75 degrees is calculated with the universe having the zero mass, and it could be compressed a bit after the universe gained its mass. This difference can be a way to estimate the mass of the current universe.

Thus, the “Alpha” is the controlling rule for the “stock sharing” for those dimensions (manifested as quarks and leptons).  In fact, a sharing plan is always the governing rule (such as the constitution) for any large complex system, a politic system or else.

With these three self-reflections of the zero(s)/infinities symmetry breaking, the road map from a “singularity” to “quark universe” is, now, clear with a perfect internal consistency.  And, these three self-reflections are the foundation for the Prequark Chromodynamics.

On the contrary, the idea of Higgs boson as a neutral particle without any internal structure (not composite of any sub-particles) is, in fact, a dangling particle without any foundation. As a dangling rootless particle in comparison to a perfect road map, how can this Higgs boson not be a bad idea?

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

The final physics theory, part 2


In the last post, I have produced three angles [A(0), A(1) and A(2)]. The fact that A(1) and A(2) are coincidentally equal to the Cabibbo and the Weinberg angles is just happy coincidences. Cabibbo angle is a perimeter for the weak interaction. The Weinberg angle is from the mixing ratio for the W-boson and Z-boson. Yet, the A(1) and A(2) arise from a completely different logic, a new theory of zeros/infinities symmetry breaking.

However, if we can make another major connection to the foundation of physics with these two angles, then, they are no longer a “number game” or happy coincidences. This simple theory of zeros/infinities symmetry breaking must be the foundation of physics.

The key foundation of this physical universe is its physical constants, such as, the electric charge (e), the light speed ( C ) and the Planck constant (ħ = h/2π). If there is any variation from these constants, this universe will become very unstable. Thus, a constant which is derived from these constants must be the center anchor for this physics universe. And, alpha = e^2/ħc  is such an anchor as it combines three the most fundamental physical constants together. Alpha is called the "electron fine structure constant" ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant  ). In fact, the value of Alpha can be calculated via its definition. And, it is also measurable experimentally. The currently accepted value is Beta = 1/ alpha = 137.0359895…

Richard P. Feynman (Nobel Laureates of physics) wrote about this Alpha, “… Immediately you would like to know where this number [alpha] for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the ‘hand of God' wrote that number, and 'we don't know how He pushed his pencil.’ We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!”

Indeed, besides its definition, no one (not just Richard P. Feynman) was able to come up this number “alpha” with a currently accepted physics theory. Yet, this dimensionless constant (alpha) is the direct consequence of this zeros/infinities symmetry breaking, a new physics.

              Beta = 1/alpha = 64 ( 1 + first order sharing + sum of the higher order sharing) 

The first order sharing (from the dividing angle) = 1/Cos [A(2)]

Note, the sharing (or mixing) is about how the members (elementary particles) share the pie of the wholeness, such as, how big a share that a W-boson will take in comparison to the Z-boson’s share.

The sum of the higher order mixing = 2(1/48)[(1/64) + (1/2)(1/64)^2 + ...+(1/n)(1/64)^n +...] = .00065737 + …  

Note: The value for the first three terms of the higher order mixing = .00065737

Thus, Beta = 64 (1 + 1/Cos [A(2)] + .00065737 + …) = 137.0408704 …

Note: there is a 0.0036% difference between this theoretical number from the measured value. The A(2) =28.75 degrees is calculated with the universe having the zero mass, and it could be compressed a bit after the universe gained its mass. Thus, this difference can be a way to estimate the mass of the current universe.

Well, numbers game or not, I have produced a dimensionless constant (alpha), the greatest damn mysteries of physics, with a consistent logic, the zeros/infinities symmetry breaking. Furthermore, this greatest damn mystery of physics is the center anchor for the physics universe.

While no one truly know what the physical meaning for alpha in the current physics theories is, it is simply the “stock sharing” rule, in this new physics, for the elementary particles to get their share of the pie in this space-time sheet universe.  And, this, of course, deserves to be the center anchor for physics.


Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Monday, May 16, 2011

The final physics theory



I have showed that some angles and four numbers (3, pi, 4 and 64) must be the essential parts of the final physics theory. Will anyone be surprised that two angles are, indeed, the essential parts of the Standard Model.

1. The Cabibbo angle (θc), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabibbo%E2%80%93Kobayashi%E2%80%93Maskawa_matrix  ---  it is a measured perimeter in the weak interaction. It’s measured value is  c)   = 13.04 degrees.

2. The Weinberg angle (θW ), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weinberg_angle   --- It is the angle by which spontaneous symmetry breaking rotates the original W (0) and B (0) vector boson plane. The value of (θW ) varies as a function of the momentum transfer. The measured value ranges from 28.8 to 30°, the lower value corresponds to the lower momentum transfer energy.

The two angles θc   and θW  are two free perimeters in the Standard Model. That is, they are measured perimeters, not theoretical variables which are derived from some basic principles.

Can we derive these two angles (which are the facts of the universe) from this new theory?  Yes, we must if the symmetry breaking of zeros is valid.

As the space-time sheet breaks out from the singularity of zero, it must encompass the entire “number” set which is a plane (real and imaginary numbers), not just a line. Thus, every “point” has four dimensions (+1, -1, +i, -i).

For every symmetry breaking in this number theory, it gives rise to three parts (two ends and the loop).  Thus, every breaking has three parts (putting into three seats).

So, the “zero” breaking must be written as (x, y, z) and it has (4, 4, 4) = 64 dimensions.

According to the Linguistics Manifesto, the similarity transformation arises from a self-reflection, that is, an “inner production” in this case. Thus, these 64 dimensions become four groups. The
                                  (x, y, z)  (x, y, z)  = {+/- 1, +/- 3}

Such as,
1. (1, 1, 1) x (1, 1, 1) = 1x1 + 1x1 + 1x1 = 3
2. (1, i, 1) x (1, i, 1) = 1x1 + i x i + 1x1 = 1

For +1, there are 24 dimensions. For +3, there are 8 dimensions. And, it is the same for the negative 1 and 3. That is, the wholeness (the zeros/infinities symmetry) is breaking into 4 groups (+8, +24, -8, -24). Is it a happy coincidence that there are 24 fundamental particles and 24 anti-particles.

a. Six quarks with three color charges, 6 x 3 = 18
b. Six leptons. 

In Prequark Chromodynamics, there are 8 vacuum states in addition to the 24 particles. And, these 64 dimensions work perfectly on the known matter/antimatter universe.

Yet, this happy coincidence means nothing if we cannot reproduce the c) and (θW ) which are the facts of this known universe.

As the wholeness is the zeros/infinities symmetry, its symmetry breaking produces angles and a unit circle. Thus, the number pi is the concrete representation of this wholeness. The breaking process is simply to divide the wholeness evenly among those new born dimensions. That is, we need a “unit” (the cutting knife) for the division. This unit angle is calculated with the following equations.

a. (pi/64 + (pi/64)^ 2 + (pi/64)^3  + ...)  = [ 1/(1 - pi/64)] - 1 = .051621342...
b. A(0), the unit angle,  equals to 1.4788425146211 degrees [57.29577951 * .051621342/2].

Obviously, these equations use only the numbers (pi, 64), and this meets the criterion of this theory. However, the detailed reason for these equations is available at http://www.prequark.org/think02.htm

By having the cutting knife, we can begin to cut the wholeness (the zeros/infinities symmetry) the first time with the following equation.

                 A(1) = [360 - 24 * A(0)]/24 = 13.5211574853 degrees

This equation is obviously dividing the wholeness (360 degrees) evenly to the 24 matter particles. Furthermore, this equation uses only the concept of zeros/infinities symmetry breaking and only with the allowed numbers [360 (=2pi), 24 and A(0)]. In fact, this is the theoretical calculation for the Cabibbo angle with the measured value as (θc)  = 13.04 degrees. If this is just a happy coincidence, more happiness is yet to come.

Again, according to the Linguistics Manifesto, all large complex systems are built up via a repeated self-reflection. That is, the wholeness should be divided the second time, which is done with the following equation.

                                A(2) = 2 * [360 - A(1) - A(0)]/24 = 28.75 degree

The logic of this equation is quite simple, and I will not repeat it here. It is available at the Prequark site. Most importantly, it meets the criterion of this theory, that is, it uses no logic or numbers of any kind other than those allowed. This is, in fact, the theoretical calculation for the Weinberg angle (θW ) = 28.8 degrees,  at the low transfer energy situation.

Now, I have produced three angles [A(0), A(1) and A(2)] which are demanded by this new theory of zeros/infinities symmetry breaking. The fact that A(1) and A(2) are coincidentally equal to the Cabibbo and the Weinberg angles is just happy coincidences. We must produce more physics facts along this logic, and that will be the happiness yet to come.

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

The rise of the physical universe, part two



For the rising of the physical universe, I have showed the following steps.
a. A space-time sheet gave rise to the quark tier.

b. Three SSBs (ED, GD, ID) gave rise to that space-time sheet.

c. The singularity symmetry breaking gave rise to the three SSBs above (ED, GD, ID) via two equations of zeros which gave rise to two concrete objects.

Yet, how are these two concrete objects related to our physical universe? If the above process is true, then these two concrete objects must be the rock bottom foundation to our physical universe.
i. One or two angles must be the essence (the innate nature) of this physical universe.

ii. A circle must also be the essence (the innate nature) of this physical universe.

Y = pi / 4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + 1/9 - 1/11 + 1/13 - ... + ... (with "countable" infinity steps)

The equation above defines a circle. The circumference of circle X = Y if its radius is 1/8. And, the area of the circle X is pi/64.

As the circle X is the concrete object from the uncountable infinity to concrete manifestation process, the three vital numbers (pi, 4, 64) must be the innate nature of this physical universe.

Thus, some angles and four numbers (3, pi, 4 and 64) become the Occam’s razor for the final physics theory. If these angles and numbers are not the essential parts of a physics theory, it cannot be the final theory.


Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Sunday, May 15, 2011

The rise of the physical universe


While a singular geometric point has an infinite internal structure, how can a “single” space-time sheet arise from those infinite possibilities? Why are these series of SSBs producing only “one” certain pathway? There are only three generations of quarks, absolutely not 4 nor 5. The quark color dimension is a Ternary charge, not Binary nor Unitary.

The fact is that the entire number line arises from one singular point, “0” (zero).
i. zero (1) = 1/countable infinity
ii. zero (2) = 1/uncountable infinity

How can the finite number arise from the two equations above? I will discuss this issue later. My question now is how the physical universe arose. The zero(s) are singular points. The infinities are unreachable in physics. How can the equations of zero(s) gave rise to the physical universe? That is, how can the infinities be concretized?

If we can find a known concrete object which encompasses the infinity, then that infinity is concretized into that concrete object.

As we know that trisecting an angle, in general, is impossible in the Euclidean geometry. Of course, it cannot be done in Euclidean geometry as the trisecting an angle takes a countable infinite steps because of the following equation.

 1/3 = 1/2 - 1/4 + 1/8 - 1/16 + 1/32 - 1/64 + 1/128 - 1/256 + 1/512 - 1/1024 + 1/2048 -... +...
              = .33349 - ... + ... = .3333333333333.....

Yet, a trisected angle is a concrete object. Thus, the “countable infinity” manifests into a concrete object as a trisected angle. Is it a happy coincidence that the quarks carry a 1/3 or 2/3 unit of electric charge?

Can uncountable infinity manifest into a concrete object? Of course, it must, for the rising of a physical universe from a singular point (zeros).

In 1/3 = .3333333….., it has countable digits. Yet, for the number pi (3.14159…), it has uncountable digits as it is a “normal” number.

pi / 4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + 1/9 - 1/11 + 1/13 - ... + ... (with "countable" infinite steps)

That is, pi (having uncountable digits) is reached with the above equation. Yet, there is a concrete object (a circle) which always associates with the number pi. Thus, the uncountable infinity manifests as a circle which is a concrete object.

Now, I have showed that the two equations of zeros are giving rise to two concrete objects. Yet, how can these two concrete objects give rise to a physical universe?

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Saturday, May 14, 2011

The source of the “Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking”, part 6



Now, I have discussed some issues on the “Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking” (SSB). 

1. The SSB for quarks arises from three lower tier SSBs.
   a. ED (SSB) --- energy dimension symmetry breaking.  V (zero energy) and A (non-zero energy)
   b. GD (SSB) --- singularity point symmetry breaking. Singularity point and a loop
   c. ID (SSB) --- internal structure symmetry breaking. A loop and a line.

And, these three SSBs (ED, GD and ID) form a space-time sheet as the lower tier for the quark tier. With the principles of the Linguistics Manifesto (http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/cwy.htm ),

   i. This space-time sheet is the source of SSB for the quarks.
   ii. The quarks arise from a similarity transformation from its lower tier, its space-time sheet.

This quark space-time sheet is described in detail by the Prequark Chromodynamics ( http://www.prequark.org/  ).

2. The SSB for ED, GD and ID arise from a new number theory.
In this new number theory, the geometric “point” on the number line is an “information agent” which has the self-awareness and is conscious of all other points in the number line. In fact, every number “point” houses infinite numbers. For example, the point for the number “3”, it houses
     a. “3”
     b. “1/3” via a loop (operation)
     c. “square root 3” via a loop of “square root”
     d. “3 square” via …
     e. etc. to …

All those numbers above reside in the “point 3”. That is, the point “3” sucks other numbers in via a “loop”. Thus, the point “3” is the “node point” of many, many loops, with every loop as a pathway to pinch a number into the point “3”.

With the understanding of this new number theory, the symmetry breaking of a singular geometric point into a loop, then into a line, becomes an innate and spontaneous process.

Yet, there is a big question. While a singular geometric point has an infinite internal structure, how can a “single” space-time sheet arise from those infinite possibilities? Why are these series of SSBs producing only “one” certain pathway? There are only three generations of quarks, absolutely not 4 nor 5. The quark color dimension is a Ternary charge, not Binary nor Unitary.

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Friday, May 13, 2011

Source of the “Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking”, part 5



In my last post, I showed,
1. There are three types of numbers (odd, even and irrational).

2. One type of number is reachable by another type or types. Thus,
     a. every number is a fruit of (or hanging on) other types of numbers,
     b. every number is known (or conscious of) by many other numbers, in addition to its self-awareness.

Thus, however chaotic the number set (especially for the irrational numbers) looks like, every number is reachable via the information of other numbers. In a sense, the number set contains infinite amount of information. Thus, in this new number theory, I will see the “number” itself as an information “agent”.

In the current Math, a number is a point on the number line which is a geometric line. In this new number theory, the “point” of a number is a “knowledge” point, in addition to be a geometric point. By knowing the “point” of number “3”, the number “1/3” is known. That is, the “point” of number “3” actually houses two numbers “3” and “1/3”. The number “3” is reached with an operation on “1/3”, and the vice-verse.  In fact, this two way operation forms a loop. Loop (1/3) = 3, and loop (3) = 1/3. Thus, every number “point” actually houses three entities (x, loop, 1/x). That is, every number “point” carries, at least, three distinguishable information, and these information are vitally important for locating other numbers.

Thus, the “Point” of “3” and the “point” of “1/3” is, in fact, the same “point” (a pinched point of 3 and 1/3 via an operation [loop]). This pinched point has the “self-awareness”. By knowing “3”, the “1/3” is also known. Of course, the “1/3” can also be reached via other points,

1/3 = 1/2 - 1/4 + 1/8 - 1/16 + 1/32 - 1/64 + 1/128 - 1/256 + 1/512 - 1/1024 + 1/2048 -... +...
              = .33349 - ... + ... = .3333333333333.....

For number x,  it is always reachable via its pinched point. For example, x = square root of y, then the pinched point (as an information agent) of x has the information of (x, y, and a loop [square root operation]).

So, every number “point” has self-awareness via a loop (operation) and another number, and it is conscious of by other points. Without this kind of self-awareness and consciousness as a part of the intrinsic nature for numbers, we (as an intelligent being) have no chance to reach any of those numbers. Thus, the terms of “self-awareness” and of “consciousness” are not a  figures of speech. Thus, however chaotic the number set (especially for the irrational numbers) looks like, it is highly organized by its consciousness, and every number is reachable via that consciousness of other numbers.

With this new number “point” for numbers, the GD symmetry breaking (giving rise to a loop from a singular point) becomes an innate and spontaneous process, as every number point (geometry point on the number line) has an internal structure. Of course, this is just the beginning. A detailed analysis will be discussed later.

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong