## Thursday, April 25, 2013

### Litmus test for the final physics

In the CERN news release of March 14, 2013, it stated, “… ‘indicates’ … that the new particle is looking more and more ‘like’ a Higgs boson, …”.  Semantically, CERN is saying, “… not knowing what the heck this new particle truly is, …”. Now, we are all waiting for more data after CERN comes back in business in 2015. However, there is a “Litmus test” for the correct particle theory, to determine what “the” fundamental among all physics entities is. And, it must consist of four parts.

a. A set of basic physics entities, the b-entities (such as, time, space, spin, etc.).

b. A set of emerging mechanisms (pulling out the b-entities from a fundamental) to set the fundamental/emergent system.

c. A set of derived theorems from this fundamental/emergent system, such as the Alpha, the Neff, etc. .

d. This set of derived theorems must make contact with the known universe.

That is, for an arbitrary selected particle theory, we should perform the following tests.
i. What is the set of b-entities? For example, the theory S has [time, space, spin (ħ),  electric charge (e), mass charge (m)] as its b-entities.

ii. What is the set of emerging mechanisms [(the fundamental/emergent system) with some functions (f)]? Let them be the followings.
1. e (electric charge) = f (ħc), c is the light speed. Thus, e is the emergent of ħ, c.

2. m (mass charge) = f (ħ/c), m is also the emergent of  ħ, c. See http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/origin-of-mass-gateway-to-final-physics.html

3. c (light speed) = f (space/time), c is the emergent of space, time.

4. ħ = f (angle/time),  ħ is the emergent of angle, time.

The above functions clearly defined a set of emerging mechanisms and a system of fundamental/emergent. The only fundamentals remaining in the above system is [space, angle, and time]. As the angle is only a subset of the space, the fundamentals can be further reduced to as [time and space].  Since space has an internal structure while the time is thus far an indivisible entity, I would select the “time” as the true and the only fundamental, and let the space as,

iii. With this choice, it should derive a set of theorems, such as the 5 below.

1.  Both  Cabibbo angle (θabout 13 degrees) and the Weinberg angle (θfrom 28 to 30 degrees) are the two key parameters in the Standard Model (SM). These two should be the first criterion for a correct particle theory, that is, they both must be “derived” by a correct particle theory. Of course, the Standard Model fails on this task (criterion), as they are only the “Free” parameters in SM.

2. The Alpha (α, electron fine structure constant) should be the second criterion. Alpha is the “lock” for the universe, as it locks three measuring rulers (ħ, the spin charge; e, electric charge; c, light speed) of the universe into a constant relationship. When these three rulers are locked, the universe is allowed to roam free with its evolution. Thus, this Alpha, as “the” most important lock/key for the universe, must be “derived (directly calculated)” in a correct particle theory. Of course, Standard Model again fails on this task (criterion).

Note: C (light speed) is also a lock which locks the (space/time) into a fixed relation. So, space and time can be set free. Yet, the Alpha is the final lock.

3. That the expansion of the universe is accelerating is now a “Fact”. This fact should be the direct consequence of a correct particle theory. Again, SM fails on this criterion.

4. The Planck data showed three key features of this universe.

a. With the Planck data (dark energy = 69.2;  dark matter = 25.8; and visible matter = 4.82) and the AMS02 data, the dark matter and the dark energy mysteries are no more. Again, the “Standard Model proper” cannot make any linkage to this issue. Its baby (SUSY) is making some wild guess without the ability to match with this Planck data. Yet, the entire Planck data can be *predicted*  with a correct particle theory which consists of two sub-models (the pimple model and an iceberg model).

For dark matter, with the Pimple model (that is, every particles carry the same mass-charge, see http://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2013/09/19/barked-up-the-wrong-trees-m-theory-and-susy/  ), there are 48 matter particles (matter + anti-matter) while only 7 of them [the first generation matter (not anti-matter)] gives out lights (excluding e-neutrino). Thus, the dark mass/visible mass ratio = [41 (100 – w)% / 7] . The *w* is the percentage of the dark matter which does give out lights. According to the AMS02 data, it is between 8 to 10%. By choosing w = 9, the d/v ratio = 5.33 (while the Planck data shows d/v ratio = 25.8/4.82 = 5.3526). Details, (see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/08/dark-matter-mystery-no-more-part-2.html  ).

For dark energy, it uses an iceberg model (see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/03/planck-data-last-straw-on-higgs-back.html ). That is, the Time, Space and Mass (dark + visible) form an iceberg system, while the mass is the iceberg. And, they three take the *equal* share. So, the dark mass = [(33.3 – 4.82) x (100 -9)%] =  25.91 (while the Planck data is 25.8), with d/v ratio = 5.37.  The 9% here is the melting ratio from the dark matter. Thus, the dark energy = 66.66 + [(33.3 – 4.82) x  9%] = 66.66 + 2.56 = 69.22 (while the Planck data is 69.2).

One interesting thing here, the dark/visible ratio was calculated with two different pathways. Yet, the average [(5.33 + 5.375)/2] = 5.3527, exactly the same as the Planck data.

With these calculations, the Nature is too simple than we can ever imagine. Yet, numbers are numbers, and there is no debate-point for these calculations.

b. Neff is 3. What the number for Neff should be? This must be directly “derived (calculated)” in the correct theory. The Standard Model fails on this again as the Neff = 3 is the gadget data (fact) for SM but is not calculated (theoretical) result.

c. Dr. Guth’s inflationary scenario is consistent with the data. Again, the inflation is not the direct “consequence” of the Standard Model, and it must be an add-on. The physics meaning for inflation is topological, the universe is a topological plane instead of a topological sphere. The Standard Model cannot even address this topological issue.

5. Neutrino oscillation is again a physics “Fact” now. The Standard Model has no slightest clue to explain this. Yet, all physicists happily brush this cruel fact away, delinked it in order to preserve the greatness of the SM.  With “energy” rule, the particle “decays” to a lower energy state. On the contrary, the neutrino can “decay upward” to become a heavier neutrino. Obviously, “decay upward” is not truly a decay in linguistic sense. So, it is called “oscillation”. Thus, neutrino demands a new physics, in addition to the “energy” rule. This oscillation can only be done with the “music-chair” rule, such as,

1 = (2, 3) = (2, (1, 2)) = (2, 1, 2)

That is, 1 is the “complement” of (2, 3), and it can play music-chair. A correct particle theory must encompass a substructure of this music-chair.

The five facts above are physics facts, not metaphysics or philosophic issues. But, the Standard Model fails on each and every one of them.  Should these five be the criteria for the correct particle theory?  This is a great question if no theory can meet these criteria. But, this is not the case. For “Super Unified Theory (Prequark Chromodynamics)”, it can derive all the five (5) above.

iv. Making contact to the known (5 criteria) above.
1. Theoretical calculation of Cabibbo and Weinberg angles, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/10/theoretical-calculation-of-cabibbo-and.html

2. Theoretical calculation of Alpha, Fine Structure Constant, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html

3. Acceleration of the expanding universe, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/05/acceleration-of-expanding-universe.html

4. Meeting the Planck data;
a. The dark/visible ratio (69/26/5), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/03/planck-data-last-straw-on-higgs-back.html

The five criteria above are enough to cut out all weeds. Yet, for the final test, two additional questions must be addressed.

a. Among many baryons, proton and neutron are rock bottom building blocks for bio-lives. “Should” one of them or both contain the “seed” of life? If not, what is the rationale for not to? If yes, then where is the hint of this seed? The point of the issue is whether this seed is in physics or in the breath of God.

Today, we do know what this seed should look like. Life is an information processing machine, that is, it needs a bio-computer. There are, in fact, two kinds of bio-computers in life, the DNA language and the protein language. It is reasonable to assume that they both share the same kind of CPU.

We also know that the best CPU is a Turing computer. The Life Game of John Conway showed that a “glider” can be the base for constructing a Turing computer. Thus, if one bio-building block (proton, neutron, electron or the whatnot) carries a sub-structure which is a glider, then the seed of life is in physics.

Of course, there is chance of any kind for the Standard Model to address this issue, but it is answered in Prequark Chromodynamics, see (Physics laws must give rise to biological lives directly, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/11/physics-laws-must-give-rise-to.html )

b. Both quantum and determinism are realities, that is, there must be a bridge between them. While both proton and neutron are, indeed, quantum particles, the quantum algebra shows that they are the bridge of these two realities.

Proton (quantum) + electron (quantum) = hydrogen atom (quantum),
then, H + H + O (oxygen) = H2 O (water, determinism).

“Should” the seed of unification of quantum and determinism be part of their (proton and electron) attributes? If not, why not? Again, there is no chance of any kind for Standard Model to address this issue. Yet, it is the direct consequence of the Prequark Chromodynamics, as the  glider is a cellular automaton, 100% deterministic. Thus, if a quantum particle carries a glider as its sub-structure, its destiny will also be deterministic, see (Welcome to the camp of truth! Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013_01_01_archive.html ).

With these two additional issues being addressed, this Litmus test is now complete. No further argument is needed for determining which one is the final valid physics theory.

## Thursday, April 4, 2013

### Higgs game is over

{Note (added on April 2, 2015, months before the LHC run II):

There should be a vacuum boson {as vacuum [d (blue), -d (-yellow)] quark pair} transformed into vacuum {u (yellow), -u (-blue)}, see http://www.prequark.org/pq11.htm .

This vacuum boson's mass should be:

{Vacuum energy (about 246 Gev) divided by 2} + {a push over energy (vacuum fluctuation, about 2.46 Gev)}
= 123 + 2.46 = 125.46 Gev.

The above calculation has only one parameter: the vacuum energy. As a vacuum boson, its key feature is having a zero (0) spin.

Three years after the discovery of this new 125.4 Gev boson, the Higgs mechanism is not verified (see article form Nigel Lockyer, Director of Fermi Lab. at http://www.quantumdiaries.org/2014/04/24/massive-thoughts/ ). That is, the Higgs mechanism is wrong, totally nonsense, and of course there is no Higgs boson; it is a Vacuum Boson.
End note.}

CERN did it again, with caveats forever. In the press releases (AMS experiment measures antimatter excess in space, http://press.web.cern.ch/press-releases/2013/04/ams-experiment-measures-antimatter-excess-space  ) on April 3, 2013, CERN said, “These results are consistent with the positrons originating from the annihilation of dark matter particles in space, but not yet sufficiently conclusive to rule out other explanations.
...
said AMS spokesperson, Samuel Ting. “Over the coming months, AMS will be able to tell us conclusively whether these positrons are a signal for dark matter, or whether they have some other origin.
One possibility, predicted by a theory known as supersymmetry, is that positrons could be produced when two particles of dark matter collide and annihilate. Assuming an isotropic distribution of dark matter particles, these theories predict the observations made by AMS. However, the AMS measurement cannot yet rule out the alternative explanation that the positrons originate from pulsars distributed around the galactic plane. Supersymmetry theories also predict a cut-off at higher energies above the mass range of dark matter particles, and this has not yet been observed. Over the coming years, AMS will further refine the measurement’s precision, and clarify the behaviour of the positron fraction at energies above 250 GeV.”

This CERN’s news-hype was criticized immediately by a few prominent physicists. In the article (First results of AMS-02 , http://resonaances.blogspot.com/2013/04/first-results-of-ams-02.html ), it says,  “They say that ‘...over the coming months, AMS will be able to tell us conclusively whether these positrons are a signal for dark matter...’. However this is just a lot of smoke without fire. There's absolutely no way that measurements of the positron spectrum may give us a reliable evidence for dark matter: not now, and not anytime soon."

In the article (AMS Presents Some First Results on Cosmic Rays and Dark Matter, http://profmattstrassler.com/2013/04/03/ams-presents-some-first-results/#comment-51341 ), it says, : "Despite what you may read, we are no closer to finding dark matter than we were last week. Any claims to the contrary are due to scientists spinning their results (and to reporters who are being spun)."

In addition to many objections from those physicists, there is a fundamental method to sort out this issue.

LHC, Planck and AMS are great gadgets, and they produce great facts (data). However, these gadget facts are differentiated truths. Integrating them is more important than those truths themselves (see http://profmattstrassler.com/2013/03/28/hes-not-wrong-the-us-and-science-research/#comment-50470 ). Yet, there are many different ways of integration.

a. Hodgepodge integration --- the similar truths are mixed together to form a hodgepodge, such as with the discovery of electron, proton, quark, …, neutrino, … to construct the Standard Model.

b. Mission-based integration ---  for particle physics, it has, at least, two types of mission.
i. Public (Pu-) mission  --- the public demands it to make, at least, two applications
1. How did life arise?
2. How did universe arise?

ii. Physicist (Ph-) mission:
1. How to unify the quantum and determinism.
2. How to encompass the gravity.

However valid that the Standard Model is in terms of the gadget data, it is only a very small niche truth at this point, without any hint for contacting the life rising mechanism and even failed in terms of the Planck data.  The collect subconscious of the public knows exactly what the truth is. An isolated niche truth is not only with little value but is definitely not a true truth.

Thus, however successful the Standard Model is as gadget facts, it is a junk when it fails on the above missions. On the other hand, if a particle theory is a mission-completed theory, it will definitely be Nature physics, as it has integrated over many gadget truths and fulfilled the required missions. Mission-criteria epistemology (based on integrated facts) is more powerful than any gadget fact based epistemology (as only differentiated truth).

Biological life is an information processing system, that is, it needs a bio-computer. And, we already know that the glider of Life Game (of John Conway) can be the base for building a Turing computer. Thus, in the life-system hierarchies (from elementary particles to atoms to bio-compounds), if we can find a glider-like structure in one tier, we have found the life-rising mechanism.

I have also showed that an iceberg model can wholly explain the Planck data (see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/03/planck-data-last-straw-on-higgs-back.html ).

Thus, if a particle theory can encompass both the framework of a glider and the iceberg model, it is the Public-mission-completed theory.  The Prequark Chromodynamics is, indeed, such a particle theory (see http://www.prequark.org/pq05.htm ).

Furthermore, it is quite easy to prove a theorem below.

Theorem: If and only if Theory A (TA) is public-mission-completed, then TA is Physicist-mission-completed.

Now, with the Prequark Chromodynamics being fully developed, the Higgs game is over.