Saturday, March 31, 2012

LHC and the knowledge-based physics

The modern physics is the greatest human achievement after applying a very strict self-discipline on an epistemology (the interplays of theory and tests), that is, if we cannot test it, then we have no way of “knowing” it.  There is a good chance that the LHC can finalize our search for the “final” physics. However, if the final physics lies beyond the reach of LHC, then it will be a long time before we can make any progress in physics with the old epistemology. Thus, a new epistemology might be needed for this upcoming new era.

There are, in fact, two physics.
1. Physics of Nature --- this preexists humanity, the N-physics.
2. Physics of human --- man’s attempt to understand the physics of Nature, the H-physics.

These two physics are dramatically different before their final unification. Today, the methodology and the epistemology of H-physics are the interplays of theories and testing. Thus, the H-physics can be divided further into two groups.

A. Physics of theories and tests, the T-physics.

B. Physics of knowledge (the K-physics) --- as soon as a “part” of the N-physics is learned via the T-physics, it becomes a “knowledge” (K-physics) which is different from the T-physics.

In fact, there are five parts in the H-physics.
1. Laws --- they are always correct in their defined domain.

2. Principles --- they should be correct universally, in all domains.

3. Nature constants --- they must be correct universally, as they are the measuring “rules” for the constructing of the universe.

4. Theories --- the human’s attempt to modeling the Nature’s design.

5. Test data --- the human’s attempt to verify the human theories.

Among the first three (laws, principles and nature constants), the nature constants should preempt all others. The Nature constants are the measuring rulers for constructing the universe. That is, they should be universal. So, as soon as they are discovered by H-physics, they should be placed into the N-physics, and they can be a base for constructing an axiom system for H-physics. This new physics is “knowledge-based” (the K-physics).   As this K-physics is an axiom system, it has its own internal truth verifying mechanism according to the axiomatic rules. Thus, even without a further test data, K-physics can still progress as an axiom system. Please note that there is a big difference between the theoretical physics which is a part of the T-physics and this K-physics which is an axiom system. Thus, this K-physics can be a checking razor for the T-physics. For example, the recent OPERA data about the Superluminal Neutrinos can be simply ruled out by the K-physics (see ).

Then, what kind of knowledge is needed for constructing this K-physics? I will start it with the Nature constant. Again, among many nature constants, what should those be selected? The gravitational constant is seemingly not a true constant but evolves in time. As the nature constants are the measuring ruler for this universe, there should be only one true nature constant. Therefore, I will select the Alpha (the electron fine structure constant) as this only Nature constant.

Alpha = e^2/c * h-bar 

In fact, this Alpha is composed with three nature constants, e (electric charge), c (light speed) and h-bar (the Planck constant). That is, this Alpha “locks” these three nature constants. If one changes, then, the one of the other two (at least) or both must also change.

This locking mechanism does have an internal hierarchy. The e (electric charge) constant is a derivative of c (light speed) and h-bar (Planck constant). That is, the Alpha is an axiom system itself, perhaps the simplest one. And, from there, a very complicated axiom system can come alive.

1. The c (light speed) gives rise to an event horizon, that is, guaranteeing a causal universe.

2. The h-bar (Planck constant) is an innate angular momentum and gives rise to mass and energy.

3. The e (electric charge) is derived from c and h-bar and gives rise to a maximum viewing window, for us to view the universe.

As these three Alpha-Nature constants (e, c, h-bar), in fact, define our universe, the Alpha itself must arises from the core-essence of Nature physics. That is, the Alpha must be arisen from physics and must be able to be calculated with physics parameters.

At Wikipedia ( ), a numerological calculation for Alpha is given. In fact, any pure number (such as Alpha) can always be approximated with a numerological formula, and it is not physics at all. A nature constant must be calculated with physics parameters. The following equation is a physics equation (not numerology) as it does use the physics parameters, such as the Weinberg angle which is the most important physics parameter as it gives the mass for the weak bosons.

Beta = 1/alpha = 64 ( 1 + first order mixing + sum of the higher order mixing)
         = 64 (1 + 1/Cos A(2) + .00065737 + …)
         =  137.0359 …

 A(2) is the Weinberg angle, A(2) = 28.743 degrees
 The sum of the higher order mixing = 2(1/48)[(1/64) + (1/2)(1/64)^2 + ...+(1/n)(1/64)^n +...]
       = .00065737 + … 

Thus, the physics which provides the above calculation must be a part of the Nature physics.

Again, the Cabibbo angle (θabout 13 degrees) and the Weinberg angle (θfrom 28 to 30 degrees) are two very important physics parameters . The values of these two angles are free parameters in the Standard Model, that is, they were forced into the model with the demand of fitting the data and had no theoretical base for them. Thus, if these two angles can be calculated theoretically, then the “physics” which provides those calculations should be also a part of the Nature physics. They, indeed, can be calculated with the following equations.

1. A(1) = [360 - 24 * A(0)]/24 = 13.5211574853 degrees,
 and this is very close to the Cabibbo angle (θc).

A(0) is an innate angle of the universe with the value = 1.4788425146211 degrees. How is A(0) calculated? It was described in detail on the page 36 of the book “Super Unified Theory” (ISBN 0-916713-02-4, Copyright # TX 1-323-231, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-90325).

2. With A(0) and A(1), we get
A(2) = 2 * [360 - A(1) - A(0)]/24
         = 28.75 degree,
 and this is almost the same as the measured Weinberg angle (θW ).

Most importantly, the physics for the calculations of those four physics parameters [A(0), Cabibbo angle, Weinberg angle and Alpha)] is the same physics.

With these four calculations, an axiom system for physics can be established. While we are waiting for the test data from LHC, physics can still progress with this K-physics.