## Wednesday, May 4, 2011

### Bottom out and top out

In addition to the attributes (Stable, Nesting and entanglement, Adaptive) which I mentioned in my last post, all large complex systems share another very important attribute, the tiered structure. The detail of this issue is available at, http://www.chinese-word-roots.org//lifesys.htm

Today, I would like to discuss two major concepts in this tiered structure, the bottom out and the top out. For the physical universe, the commonly accepted tiers are,
1. quarks
2. protons, electrons, neutrons, etc.
3. atoms (elements)
4. chemical compounds
5. … etc.
6. the universe
With all these tiers, there is a bottom; the quarks are agreed bottom today, and there is a top, the universe.

In fact, for any clear defined system (life system, economics, ecosystem, etc.), there is always a bottom and a top. And these tops and bottoms are depending upon the definition of the system.

Yet, there is an absolute bottom (the nothingness) and an absolute top (the infinity). However, we do know that there are two types of infinities, the countable and the uncountable.

Then, there should also be two types of nothingness.
i. zero (1) = 1/countable infinity
ii. zero (2) = 1/uncountable infinity

Is zero (1) equal to zero (2)? Do we need two types of zero to describe this world? The answer is affirmative. Yes, we do need two types of zero (nothingness).

There are, in fact, two types of zero (nothingness) for describing the “existential state” of the nothingness.
a. nothingness (1) --- something is not yet in existence but will come into being in the future.
b. nothingness (2) --- something was in existence but has vanished.

Can we use a single zero to describe these two different nothingness? Up to now, we did. Yet, this is the reason that many issues in this universe remain as mysteries. As soon as we know the difference between the two different zeros, all mysteries will be there no more.

Bottom out to zeros and top out to infinities are the key principle of this Linguistics Manifesto.  And, this principle can be applicable on all fields (physics, mathematics, life system, economics, etc.). This will be the central point in our next posts.

Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong