Friday, June 21, 2013

G-string, the final nail seals the Higgs coffin

{Note (added on April 2, 2015, months before the LHC run II):

There should be a vacuum boson {as vacuum [d (blue), -d (-yellow)] quark pair} transformed into vacuum {u (yellow), -u (-blue)}, see .

This vacuum boson's mass should be:

{Vacuum energy (about 246 Gev) divided by 2} + {a push over energy (vacuum fluctuation, about 2.46 Gev)}
= 123 + 2.46 = 125.46 Gev.

The above calculation has only one parameter: the vacuum energy. As a vacuum boson, its key feature is having a zero (0) spin.

Three years after the discovery of this new 125.4 Gev boson, the Higgs mechanism is not verified (see article form Nigel Lockyer, Director of Fermi Lab. at ). That is, the Higgs mechanism is wrong, totally nonsense, and of course there is no Higgs boson; it is a Vacuum Boson.
End note.}

In the article ( ), Peter Woit wrote, “…  since the story of the last thirty years is not one of evidence for string  [M-] theory unification accumulating, but the opposite: the more we learn about string [M-] theory, the less likely it seems that it can predict anything.  …
String [M-] theory unification is an idea now discredited in the scientific community, but getting propped up by TV programs and prizes from Russian billionaires. …
I actually know many people who work on string theory who have given up on the idea of getting the Standard Model out of it. The most common attitude I hear among string theorists is that the ways people used to hope to connect it to the SM have failed."

In fact, there is a litmus test to settle the above debate. Einstein said, “You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother”.  In addition to simply agree with Einstein 100%, I would like to give it a theoretical support with the following points.

A. Whatever the “foundation” of this universe is, this universe evolves via the self-similarity transformation from that foundation. However complicated a “physics law” is, it is always only a “foundation” of the higher tier manifestations. That is, the essence of that physics law is expressed in every piece of the higher tier “expression”. If we cannot use a “story” which is easily understood by the old grandmother, we did not truly understand that complicated physics law, period.

B.  In general, people view the linguistics as languages. I will define the linguistics universe with three parts.
a. A meta-space --- it encompasses the events and objects in the physical universe.

b. Languages --- they try to describe the stories in that meta-space.

c. A meaning-space --- the meaning of the meta-space story is understood by people.

In general, a meta-space story could be understood differently by different people who have different world views. However, we could exclude the culture element and deal the issue strictly linguistically, that is, in terms of translation among languages only. Then, the meaning-space for all languages is identical.

Now, for all languages (including mathematics), they share two identical continents (meta-space and meaning-space). That is, “all” languages are permanently linked among one another by these two continents. And, every language can be “translated” to any other language. Math is the “simplest” language in linguistics. When one cannot translate a math equation to a nature language, he does for sure not truly understand that math equation.

Now, the true “solid” facts in physics are,
a. The Planck data (dark energy, dark matter, visible matter and Neff = 3), see

b. There are 48 known elementary particles.

If we can show these two facts to the old grandmother, we have understood the essences of these two physics facts. The following is the explanation.

Grandmother, this universe is very simple, just the same as an amphitheater which has 4 parts.
1. It sits in a big “field” (open space, dark energy ).
2. It has an audiences section (not shining, dark mass).
3. It has a stage (for actors, visible mass).
4. It has a backstage (for directors, screenplay writers, etc.; anti-matter)

The open field carries tremendous amount of dark energy. The chairs in all section(s) carry a lot of dark mass. Of course, there are three types of chairs (L1, L2, L3), one for each “section”. Every chair is made of a piece of tree trunk (a line-string, that is).  A line-string has three parts, the two ends and one middle section which connects the two ends. Thus, the three parts of this line-string are distinguishable and can be written as (a, b, c) in mathematical symbols. Yet, there is a special property of this line-string. When its two ends join together, its three parts are no longer distinguishable. It works just like following the “color rules”. Thus, I will use (red, yellow, blue) or (r, y, b) to replace the old (a, b, c) symbol. So, every piece of tree trunk (line-string) can sit three audiences, three actors or three directors, etc..

Now, we have an empty amphitheater. With some “people” come in, it will come alive. And, its liveliness (dynamics) can be described with some formulas. Let’s using ,
i. A (audience, actor; as a person)
ii. V (vacant seat)

So, by knowing the seating situations, we can calculate the entire dynamics of the theater. Of course, every person who comes in needs pay a “charge”. As he sits on only 1/3 of the tree trunk, he pays only 1/3 of “charge”. The status of every chair (tree trunk) can be identified with a color system. After “A” occupies a seat, that seat color is blocked (A being opaque). Of course, V (being a vacant seat) is transparent. Now, the status of the seating situation can be identified with the following system.

      1. (V, V, V) = (r, y, b) = white = colorless, as V is transparent.
      2. (A, A, A) = colorless = white, as A is opaque.
      3. (V, A, A) = (r, A, A) = red;  (A, V, A) = yellow;  (A, A, V) = blue
      4, (V, V, A) = (r, y, A) = blue (complement of r + Y)

With the above, we can identify “all” possible seating situation in the theater. Just for the fun, I will call a tree trunk as G-string and give some funny names (no special meaning to them) for those different types of sitting situation as below.

String 1 =  (V,  A,  A 1) = {1st , red, 2/3 e, ½ ħ} = red up quark.
String 2 =  (A,  V, V  1) = {1st , red, 1/3 e, ½ ħ} = red anti-down quark.
String 3 =  (A,  A, V  1) =  {1st , blue, 2/3 e, ½ ħ} = blue up quark.
String 7 = (A, A, A 1) = {1st, white (colorless), 1 e, ½ ħ} = e (electron).
String 8 = (V, V, V 1) = {1st, white, 0 e, ½ ħ} = e-neutrino.
String 9 = (V,  A,  A 2) {2nd  , red, 2/3 e, ½ ħ} = red charm quark.
String 48 = -(V, V, V 3)  - {3rd, white, 0 e, ½ ħ} = anti-tau-neutrino.

Not only is this description of an amphitheater (the G-strings) definitely understood by the old grandmother, but it has accomplished the task of getting the SM (Standard Model) out, which was an impossible task for the M-string theory for over 40 years.

This amphitheater model also provides the calculation for Planck CMB data 1: (dark energy = 69.2; dark matter = 25.8; and visible matter = 4.82)

Seven (7) G1 strings are the actors on stages, visible mass.
The e-neutrino, G2, G3 strings (total 17) are audience, dark mass 1.
The anti-matters (total 24) are on the backstage (directors), dark mass 2.

So, the d/v (dark/visible ratio) = [41 (100 – W) % / 7]

When, W = 9 % (the dark radiation, the ratio of dark mass melting into dark energy), d/v = 5.33

[(Z – V) x (100 – W) %] /5.33 = V, V is visible mass of this universe; Z = (1/3).

[(33.33 –V) x .91]/5.33 = V

V= 5.69048 / 1.17073 = 4.86   (while the Planck data is 4.82),

D (Dark mass) = [(Z – 4.86) x (100 – W) %] = [(33.33 -4.86) x .91] = 25.90 (while the Planck data = 25.8)

See, for details.

By passing this grandmother test, the G-string is definitely a foundation for the Standard Model. Yet, the G-string rules out the Higgs hallucination (see ) and is the last nail on Higgs coffin.

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