Saturday, November 5, 2011

M-theory, a TOE if and only if it adds two points



M-theory (Mother of all theories) is a new name for the old Superstring theory which claims to be a TOE (theory of everything), as it can be a way of describing every force and matter regardless of how large or small or weak or strong it is.

But, 20 years ago, Sheldon Glashow said, "They [superstring physicists] have the feeling that they require, as Ed Witten says, the construction of five new fields of mathematics before they have any reason to become confident that they have a theory. In fact they do not have a theory. They have a complex of ideas which do not evidently form any kind of theory and they cannot even say whether their structure describes the successful accomplishments that have been obtained in the laboratory, and in theoretical physics."

Now, 20 years later, Rudolf Haag (wrote in 2010), “String theory is hailed as the most promising among present endeavours. But it is an overstatement to call it a theory. It has not settled down to a well defined formalism nor has it explained any existing puzzle nor can I see that it can make contact with any observable phenomenon in the foreseeable future.”

The bottom line is that the M-theory cannot make contact with any observable phenomenon in particle physics. However great a TOE the M-theory is, it cannot reproduce the particle zoo which is well understood now.

However, the quark in the Prequark Chromodynamics is a superstring, composed of prequarks. By adding Prequark Chromodynamics, the M-theory makes contact with the known physics right the way. The following is a brief description of the Prequark Chromodynamics.

There are three quark colors. In Prequark theory, these three colors can be represented as three seats (in spacetime). For each seat, it can be either empty (Vacutron) or occupied (Angultron). Thus, only four different kinds of particles can be formed:
  1. A particle with all seats occupied by Angultrons carries one unit of electric charge, and it is named positron.
  2. A particle with two seats occupied by Angultrons carries 2/3 units of electric charge, and it is named UP quark.
  3. A particle with one seat occupied by an anti-Angultron carries -1/3 units of electric charge, and it is named Down quark.
  4. A particle with no seat occupied by Angultron carries zero units of electric charge, and it is named neutrino.
Furthermore, for a given quark (as an open string), there are three ways to arrange the seating, and each way is distinguishable from others. Physicists have chosen three color labels to identify these differences. So, two quarks (Up and Down) evolve into six distinguishable quarks.

Again, in Quantum Chromodynamics, there are three generations of quarks. These three generations are identified with three numbers, 1, 2 and 3. Thus, the prequark representations for those elementary particles are listed in table I and table II. 

Table I: Prequark Representation for Leptons
Generation
Particle name
Prequark Representation
Colors
Electric Charge
1st
Electron
-(A, A, A1)
colorless
one (1)
1st
Neutrino
(V, V, V1)
colorless
0
2nd
Muon
-(A, A, A2)
colorless
one (1)
2nd
Muon neutrino
(V, V, V2)
colorless
0
3rd
Tau
-(A, A, A3)
colorless
one (1)
3rd
Tau neutrino
(V, V, V3)
colorless
0
















Table II: Prequark Representation for Quarks
Generation
Particle name
Red
Yellow
Blue
Electric Charge
1st
Up quark
(V, A, A1)
(A, V, A1)
(A, A, V1)
2/3
1st
Down quark
-(A, V, V1)
-(V, A, V1)
-(V, V, A1)
-1/3
2nd
Charm quark
(V. A. A2)
(A, V, A2)
(A, A, V2)
2/3
2nd
Strange quark
-(A, V, V2)
-(V, A, V2)
-(V, V, A2)
-1/3
3rd
Top quark
(V, A, A3)
(A, V, A3)
(A, A, V3)
2/3
3rd
Bottom quark
-(A, V, V3)
-(V, A, V3)
-(V, V, A3)
-1/3

Three notions shall be mentioned here.

First, the quark color corresponds to a special seating arrangement. I have chosen the first seat to be red, yellow for the second seat, blue for the third. The quark color is identified by the seat's color which is occupied by a minority prequark. For example, V is the minority prequark in (V, A, A1), and it sits on the red seat; so (V, A, A1) has a red color. (V, A, V1) is yellow because the minority prequark A sits on the yellow seat. The prequarks (A or V) themselves are colorless.

Second, quark colors obey the complementary rules: a) R + Y + B = White (colorless), b) R + Y = anti-B, etc.

Third, the generation of a quark or a lepton is represented by a number, 1, 2 or 3. For convenience, the generation numbers are attached on the third seat. The prequarks and seats themselves have no generation.
The “generation” is a color charge in the Prequark Chromodynamics, and it obeys the color complementary rules. Thus, in Prequark Chromodynamics, the fourth generation of quarks is prohibited.

Note: Angultron could be much more massive than quarks. So, it is called prequark (before quarks), not subquark.

The major difference between the Prequark Chromodynamics (PC) and the M-theory is that PC knows the detailed internal structure of the quark superstring while M-theory does not.

In his book “Not Even Wrong”, Peter Woit shows “that what many physicists call superstring ‘theory’ is not a theory at all. It makes no predictions, even wrong ones, and this very lack of falsifiability is what has allowed the subject to survive and flourish. Not Even Wrong explains why the mathematical conditions for progress in physics are entirely absent from superstring theory today and shows that judgments about scientific statements, which should be based on the logical consistency of argument and experimental evidence, are instead based on the eminence of those claiming to know the truth.”

Yet, I have showed that by adding Prequark Chromodynamics  (one of the two points), a superstring theory can make contact with the known physics.

No comments:

Post a Comment