Sunday, April 22, 2012

Origin of time, the breaking of a perfect symmetry

For a particle physicist, he knows about the baryongenesis, the p-violation, the cp-violation, that is, there is symmetry breaking in this universe. But, the t (time) symmetry is preserved in all physics equations. Yet, for the common folk who know no physics will not know about those symmetry breaking and about the time-symmetry preservation in physics equations. However, I have introduced an “Existential principle” in my article “Origin of spatial dimensions, and the definition for dimension” ( ).

Existential principle (EP) --- for attribute X which exists at the bottom tier of a hierarchy system (with multi-level tiers), the “meaning” of the attribute X will be preserved (shown up) in the top tier  (such as the macro-world) of the system even it goes through with many hysteresis (history or trace killing) processes.

With the EP, even the common folk who know no physics will know that “time” is the result of a symmetry breaking deep down somewhere regardless of the fact that t-symmetry preserves in all physics equations, as the perceived “time” (the macro-meaning) is not symmetrical in its moving direction. Yet, the semantic meaning of the term of “symmetry-breaking” points out that there is a symmetry before that breaking. Then, what is that symmetry and what is that symmetry-breaking process?

In fact, there are infinite ways to break a symmetry (such as a round disk). I also introduced a “Naturalness Thesis (NT)” in a previous article. According to NT, in a group of processes (x, y, z, …, etc.), if y is more complicated than x, than y is less natural then x. That is, y needs more “fine-tuning” than x. In my article “Supersymmetry, Gone with the wind” ( ), I have shown two different ways for breaking a round disk symmetry.

1. SB1 --- breaks it into two equal halves, right through the center. And, all SUSY theories are taking this approach, with s-particles for each known particles.

2. SB2 --- breaks only “one” point on the circumference of the disk. For the SB2 symmetry-breaking, no s-particles are needed.

Obviously, SB1 is more cumbersome than SB2. That is, the SB2 is more natural than SB1. Thus, with the NT, any SUSY with s-particles will be abandoned by Nature. In the article “SUSY And The Silence Of The (Roasted) Lamb” [by Tommaso Dorigo, a physicist a CERN, ], he wrote, "The silence of that Easter lamb reminds me of the silence with which these days Supersymmetric theories are going down one by one, almost by the day. While collecting data at 8 TeV and getting ready to squeeze it for new results, ATLAS and CMS are publishing the remainder of their searches for SUSY signatures in their 2011 data sets. And every new result that gets published typically kills one or two of the interesting points of "natural" low-energy Supersymmetry which had been left alive by the previous searches."

Of course, the fates of all those SUSY theories will be checked out by the LHC data sooner or later. Yet, for this Axiomatic Physics, we do not need to wait for those test data. We can define the “time” axiomatically. On page 26 of the book “Super Unified Theory” (ISBN 0-916713-02-4, Copyright # TX 1-323-231, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-90325), I defined “time” axiomatically as follows.

a. Time is the result of symmetry-breaking of “zero” (a complex number). Thus, time has four dimensions (+/- t, +/-it).

b. As time is the result of the “symmetry (zero)” breaking, it cannot encompass that symmetry (zero). Thus, t = 0 or delta t = 0 is not defined. So, delta t > 0, that is, t (time) is a quanta.

The graph description of this definition of “time” is available at . After “time” is defined in this axiomatic way, the space is defined with the “equation zero” in the article “Where is Tomorrow?” ( ).

Delta S = N * C * (Delta T)
              = (i^n1, i^n2, i^n3) * C * (Delta T) ..................... Equation zero

Please also review the article “Origin of spatial dimensions, and the definition for dimension” ( ). In fact, the matrix N will give rise to the quark universe. And, I will discuss this in the future posts.

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