## Sunday, April 29, 2012

### The rise of gravitation, and hierarchy problem no more!

If the Nature physics built this universe with an axiomatic procedure, not with any trial-and-errors steps, then, we can discover this Nature physics by trying to build an Axiomatic physics (AP) of our own. If the axiomatic sentences of AP do make contact with “all” the known laws of the Nature physics, then the validity of AP is very much certain. This AP, of course, must also answer “all” current open questions, such as, in the following list.

a. dark matter and dark energy,
b. acceleration of the expanding universe,
c. origin of mass, the mass-rising mechanism,
d. origin of space and time,
e. origin of flavors,
f. origin of generations,
g. super unification of all forces, the coupling constants hierarchy issue,
h. how do free parameters get their values,
i. baryongenesis,
j. etc.

The origin of time, of space and of mass was answered partially as soon as they were axiomatically defined. Today, I will discuss the issue of “super unification of all forces and the coupling constants hierarchy issue”.

In the previous article “Axiomatic physics, the final physics” (at http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/axiomatic-physics-final-physics.html), I have built such an AP. I will, however, list out its framework as below for the convenience.

A. The axiom ---   Alpha = e^2/c * h-bar   (Axiom One)

B. Definitions
1. time:
i. time is a quanta, that is, delta t > 0, and delta t = 0 is not defined.
ii. time creates two copies of the universe, one with the real-time, the others with the imaginational time.

2. space:  Delta s = (N) c * delta t, N is a trait matrix, c the light speed, t the time.

3.  mass:
i. m (mass) = (h-bar/c)(2pi/L),
L is the wavelength (lambda) of a particle. As the L (lambda) is an attribute of a particle, m (mass) is also an attribute (not a universal constant) of a particle.

ii. M (mass) = (Ms * Mt) ^ (1/2) = (h-bar/c) (1/[c* delta s * delta t]) ^ (1/2)
a. Ms (space-defined mass) = (h-bar/c) * (1/delta s), c (light speed), s (space)
b. Mt (time-defined mass) = (h-bar/c) * (1/[c * delta t]), t (time)

4. S (spin of a charge, mass or electric charge) = (1/2) h-bar

5. e (electric charge) = (+/-)[(1/2) h-bar * c]^(1/2) = (+/-)(S * c)^(1/2), this is a universal constant.

All these parameters above are defined axiomatically, without the concern of any operational or experimental issues. These definitions will be used to “derive” some axiomatic sentences, which will be comparing to the “discovered” physics laws. While the definitions of an axiom system can be chosen arbitrary, we still want to ask the question of why the Nature chose them as they are, not otherwise.
i. Why should “time” is defined as it is?
ii. While the N (trait matrix) will give rise to all known particles and their masses, why N is chosen as it is, not otherwise?
iii. Why Alpha has the value as it is?

Of course, this AP must answer these questions, and they will be answered one at a time. Now, we should derive some axiomatic sentences.

The “force” in AP will be defined as follow.

F (unified force) = K ħ / (delta T * delta S)

K is the coupling constant, dimensionless. So,

K = F * (delta t * delta s)/ h-bar

K (coupling constant) can be calculated in the unit of time when two different forces have the same strength.  So,
K(e) /K(g) = delta s(e)/delta s(g)

In this AP, K(e) is defined as 1/137 and delta s(e) is the radius of electron  [delta s(e) ~ 2*10^(-15) meters]. This definition is based on the “Prequark Chromodynamics” (PC) at http://www.prequark.org/ . In PC, the electron is composed of three “Angultron”, which carries 1/3 of electric charges. That is, the standard range for the electric charges interaction is the radius of electron. Of course, the electric charge can interact with far away object via its emitted photons; yet, its coupling strength is determined by its strongest interaction, inside of the electron.

This same electron also carries a mass-charge which interacts with “all” masses in the universe. Thus, the delta s(g), the averaged distance for this interaction is the radius of the universe, which is about 10^27 meters. So,

K(g)  = K (e)/ [delta s(e)/delta (g)] = k(e)/( 10^42)

With this AP force equation, the hierarchy problem is easily resolved. On the page 50 of the book “Super Unified Theory” (ISBN 0-916713-02-4, Copyright # TX 1-323-231, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-90325), it wrote, “THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT (G) HAS TO DECREASE RAPIDLY. … We can define the time unit (TU) as follow,

TU [delta t] = TU (big bang) * r (radius of big bang) / R (radius of the current universe)

… And the size of this universe is less than 10^17 light years. … the value of gravitational constant (G) is also decreased 10^34 times. …
… the older galaxies will have higher apparent mass because that the GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT WAS HIGHER then.”

The above quote answers the question of why the “time” is defined in such a way in this AP partially and the question about “dark matter” partially. Furthermore, the “uncertainty principle” will be the direct consequence of this AP force equation.

Delta P = F * Delta T = K h/ Delta S
so, delta P * delta S = Kh

Thus;
1. When, K >=1, then delta P * delta S >= h
2. When K ~ 1, the uncertainty principle remains significant.
3. When K << 1, then uncertainty principle is no longer important.

A more detailed description of this AP forces is available in the article “The Rise of Gravity and Electric Charge” at http://www.prequark.org/Gravity.htm .