Friday, May 4, 2012

Neutron decay and proton’s stability --- source of universe’s evolution

The three generations of quarks and leptons in the Standard Model (SM) are based on step by step knowledge advancement on the phenomenology, not on a true theoretical framework.  On the contrary, in the Axiomatic physics (AP), the origins of flavor and of generation are the direct consequences of space-time structure (see the article “48, the exact number for the number of elementary particles, “). Nonetheless, the SM became very successful after its correct predictions of the weak-bosons and their masses by using a postulated Higgs mechanism. However, if the SM Higgs is not found this year, SM will receive a deadly blow. While we are waiting for the verdict from LHC on this SM Higgs issue, we can still review the entire framework of the SM with this AP.

In SM, all force carriers are viewed as particles which have defined masses and measurable lifetime. On the contrary, only quarks and leptons are space-time structurally defined particles in this AP. The three force carriers (photons, gluons, and gravitons) are viewed as the fibers for some kinds of envelopes in this AP. All photons of the universe weave out an envelope of an event horizon, the causal envelope. The gluons inside of a particle weave out an envelope for that particle with a definite wavelength which defines that particle’s mass. All gravitons in the universe weave out an envelope as the space-time front. In this sense, the three forces (electromagnetic, strong and gravitation) are doing similar works and should be represented with the same mathematical function. The only difference among these three is the scales for their applications. These three are “constructive” forces, constructing different envelopes.

On the other hand, the weak force is completely different from the three above. Instead of being a constructive force, it is a “destructive” one, breaking some envelopes. If the three constructive forces are three forward moving gears, the weak force is the reverse gear. For any evolution process, both the forward and reverse moving gears are needed, even for the evolution of the universe, see the article “Sexevolution --- The Grand Design (rise of Intelligence)", ( ).

Thus, among the four forces, the weak force is fundamentally different from the other three in this AP although it is unified with the others with the unified force equation below.

F (unified force) = K ħ / (delta T * delta S)

K is the coupling constant, dimensionless. However, only by knowing the differences between those forces, we will understand the true meaning of their unification.

In the Standard Model, the weak force is the culprit for decaying processes. By definition, decay is a spontaneous “internal” process, that is, no external forces act upon to it.   For the neutron decay,

                               N    ->   P + E + v(e)-bar

In the SM, the above process is mediated by a weak force carrier, the W-boson. As the W is a force carrier, the process is, of course, spontaneous and internal. The two graphs below show the differences between the SM and the G-theory.

Then, why the proton does not decay with the following equation which is just as genuine as the N equation above.

                               P   ->   (e)bar + Pi(zero)

There is no good answer on this issue in SM.

On the other hand, there are two types of decaying processes in this AP.

A. A particle decays after it “interacts” with the space-time vacuum. Thus, this decaying process is not truly spontaneous and internal.
      a. The neutron decay is such a case.  In this AP, neutron decay is described in terms of Prequark Chromodynamics. Neutron first “picks up” a d-quark/anti-d-quark pair from the space-time vacuum. Then, this new five-quark compound goes through two steps.
         i. the flavor changing --- a d-quark/anti-d-quark pair changes into a u-quark/anti-u-quark pair,
         ii. the exchange of two prequarks between two quarks.

Obviously, there is a significant difference between this AP description and SM’s. For the SM, the W-boson is the force carrier (the mediating actor, the cause), and thus the process is spontaneous and internal. In this AP, the W-boson is the “result” (a transient state) of a space-time induced process, not the cause. Thus, the neutron decay is a space-time induced flavor change decaying process in this AP, not spontaneous and internal.

       b. Another space-time induced decay is the muon decay.
                                      Muon    ->   e + v(e)bar + v(muon)

In Prequark Chromodynamics (PC), this decay is driven purely by the “generation force” which is a “color charge” in PC.  Thus, the muon decay is a “generation” change process.

In this AP, both the “flavor” and “generation” are the consequences of the space-time structure (See the article “48, the exact number for the number of elementary particles”). Thus, those two decaying processes above are space-time induced, not spontaneous and internal.

The detailed diagrams and descriptions of these two decays are available in the article “Neutron Beta Decay, “. They were published on page 19 to 20 of the book “Super Unified Theory” (ISBN 0-916713-02-4, Copyright # TX 1-323-231, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-90325).

B. The proton decay equation below is a truly spontaneous and internal decaying process.

                                         P   ->   (e)bar + Pi(zero)

The detailed proton decay diagram and description are available in the article “Proton's stability and its decay mode” ( ). In the diagram, proton does not interact with the space vacuum, and there is no generation change. Without any external energy infusion from the space-time vacuum, the proton cannot decay as it has lower energy in comparison to its decayed products.  Yet, in this AP, a proton will decay when the energy of the space-time vacuum has enough energy to crash the envelope of the proton.  

With the examples above, there is no true spontaneous and internal decaying process in this AP. “All” decays are space-time vacuum induced or are driven by the space-time structure, the changing of flavor and/or generation, which are the traits of the space-time structure. Now, the true essence of the “weak force” is understood in this AP.

Now, the difference between this Axiomatic physics (AP) and the Standard Model (SM) is very clear. The validity of the SM is hinged on the postulated Higgs mechanism which is only a “shadow” of the space-time structure of this AP. See the article “Higgs Boson, a shadow of the Prequark field” ( ). And, the LHC data will soon give an answer on this issue.

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